Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

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Typhoid Fever

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Traveler’s Diarrhea (TD)

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What is TRAVELERS’ DIARRHEA?

  • Travelers’ diarrhea (TD) is the most common illness affecting travelers. The onset of TD usually occurs within the first week of travel but may occur at any time while traveling, or even after returning home. The most important determinant of risk is the traveler’s destination. High-risk destinations are the developing countries such as Latin America, Africa, the Middle East, and Asia.
  • Infectious agents are the primary cause of Travelers’ Diarrhea and commonly caused by eating food, ice or drinks that were contaminated with bacterial enteropathogens.
  • The most common causative agent isolated in countries surveyed has been enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). Besides ETEC and other bacterial pathogens, a variety of viral and parasitic enteric pathogens also are potential causative agents.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Increased frequency and volume of stools
  • Loose or watery or bloody bowel movements
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramping
  • Bloating
  • Fever
  • Urgency
  • Malaise

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Self-Care

  • Avoid eating foods or drinking beverages purchased from street vendors or establishments where unhygienic conditions are present
  • Avoid tap water, ice, unpasteurized milk and dairy products
  • Avoid eating raw or undercooked meat and seafood
  • Avoid eating raw fruits and vegetables unless they are peeled by yourself
  • Hygienic handling of food and drinks
  • Consume small amounts of fluid often
  • Drink only boiled, canned or bottled drinks without ice

Traetment

  • In most cases, travelers’ diarrhea is benign and can be resolved in 1-2 days without treatment. TD is rarely life threatening; however, oral rehydration salt is often beneficial to replace lost fluids and electrolytes.
  • Clear liquids are routinely recommended for adults. Travelers who develop three or more loose stools in an 8-hour period—especially if associated with nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, fever, or blood in stools—may benefit from antimicrobial therapy. Antibiotics usually are given for 3-5 days.
  • Bismuth subsalicylate also may be used as treatment: 1 fluid ounce or 2 262 mg tablets every 30 minutes for up to eight doses in a 24-hour period, which can be repeated on a second day.
  • If diarrhea persists despite therapy, travelers should be evaluated by a doctor and treated for possible parasitic infection.

Consult a pharmacist at Lovy Pharmacy when choosing a supplement for your condition.

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Thrush

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What is Thrush?

  • Thrush is a yeast infection of the mucus membrane lining the mouth and tongue. Thrush is caused by forms of a fungus known as Candida. Small amounts of the candida fungus are present in the mouth, digestive tract, and skin of most healthy people and are normally kept in check by other bacteria and microorganisms in the body. When the immune system is weak, the fungus can grow. Other factors which increase chances of getting thrush are:
  •  Being in poor health
  •  Being very old or very young
  •  Having an HIV infection or AIDS
  •  Receiving chemotherapy for cancer or drugs to suppress immune system
  • Taking steroid medications

People who have diabetes and have high blood sugar levels are more likely to get thrush in the mouth (oral thrush), because the extra sugar in saliva acts like food for Candida. Thrush is commonly seen in infants. It is not considered abnormal in infants unless it lasts longer than a couple of weeks. Antibiotics kill some of the healthy bacteria that help keep Candida from growing too much, taking high doses or long term of antibiotics increases the risk of oral thrush. Thrush is not limited to the mouth; it can occur in other parts of the body as well, causing diaper rash in infants or vaginal yeast infections in women.

Signs and Symptoms

  • A common sign of thrush is the presence of creamy white, slightly raised lesions in the mouth (usually on the tongue or inner cheeks, but sometimes on the roof the mouth, gums, tonsils, or back of throat). The lesions, which may have a “cottage cheese” appearance, can be painful and may bleed slightly when scraped. In severe cases, the lesions can spread into esophagus, or swallowing tube and causing:
  •  Pain or difficulty swallowing
  •  A feeling that food gets stuck in the throat or mid-chest area
  •  Fever, if the infection spreads beyond the esophagus

Test & Screening

  • Doctor or dentist can almost always diagnose thrush by looking at the mouth and tongue. The sores have a distinct appearance.
  • It also can be diagnosed by the culture of mouth lesions or microscopic examination of mouth scrapings.

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Self-Care

The following can help you prevent thrush:

  • Follow good oral hygiene practices. Brush the teeth at least twice a day and floss at least once a day.
  • Avoid mouthwashes or sprays which can destroy the normal balance of microorganisms in the mouth.
  • Visit dentist regularly. Especially for people with diabetes or wear dentures.
  • Limit the amount of sugar and yeast-containing foods intake. (Bread, beer, and wine encourage candida growth).
  • Quit smoking.

Traetment

  • For thrush in infants, treatment is often NOT needed. It usually gets better on its own within 2 weeks.
  • Use a soft toothbrush and rinse your mouth with a diluted 3% hydrogen peroxide solution several times a day.
  • An antifungal suspension (nystatin) can be use for severe case of thrush. These products are usually used for 5 – 10 days.
  • Stronger oral medications such as fluconazole or itraconazole may be use if the infection has spread throughout the body or in a weakened immune system auch as HIV/AIDS.

Consult a pharmacist at Lovy Pharmacy when choosing a supplement for your condition.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][/vc_column][/vc_row]