Hand, Foot & Mouth Disease (HFMD)


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HFMD is a viral infection caused by a group of enteroviruses, most commonly the Coxsackie virus. The incubation period of HFMD is 3 to 5 days (with a range from 2 days to 2 weeks). Both adults and children can be affected, but young children below 5 years old are more susceptible.[/vc_column_text][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Signs and Symptoms

  • Fever.
  • Lethargy.
  • Poor appetite.
  • Sore throat.
  • Mouth ulcers on the inside of the mouth or sides of the tongue.
  • Rash (flat or raised spots) or small blisters on palms of hands, soles of feet, and/or buttocks.

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How does it spread?

HFMD spreads through direct contact with:

  • Nasal discharge.
  • Saliva.
  • Faeces and fluids from the rash of an infected person.

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Is there any treatment?

Currently there is no specific effective treatment except for symptoms relief methods.[/vc_column_text][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

If your child has HFMD, please take the following actions:

  • Inform school, nursery, kindergarten, so that they can monitor other children closely and prevent further spread of HFMD.
  • Keep your child away from public.
  • Check other family members whether they have any signs and symptoms of HFMD.
  • Proper disinfection of appliances or toys that are contaminated.
  • Avoid sharing food and utensils.

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4 CHECKS whether your child is fit for school:

  • Check for fever (to take temperature).
  • Check for blisters on hands and arms.
  • Check for mouth ulcers.
  • Check for blisters on soles of feet, legs and/or buttocks.

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For more info

Please refer to the following website:

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Bone and Joint Health


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As we progress through adulthood, bone resorption occurs at a rate faster than bone formation. This results in a gradual fail in bone mass as we age.[/vc_column_text][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Rickets and Osteomalacia

Rickets is a condition that results from a delay in deposition of bone mineral (especially calcium and phosphate) for bone growth. This is a result of poor vitamin D, and is characterised by skeletal deformities such as bowed legs.[/vc_column_text][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


Excessive loss of bone tissue leads to osteoporosis, a condition that is characterised by bone fragility and increased risk of bone fracture. Osteoporosis may lead to mobility problems and even death.[/vc_column_text][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][vc_single_image image=”4185″ img_size=”medium”][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Factors affecting bone strength

  • Oestrogen
  • Physical Activity
  • Diet

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Plays an important role in women to protect bones. Thus, irregular or loss of menstrual periods can be detrimental to bones because after menopause, oestrogen is no longer produced, which eventually causing increased bone loss compared to men of same age.[/vc_column_text][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Physical activity

Especially weight bearing activity, is of critical importance in building and maintaining strong bones. Engaging with regular physical activity has many benefits for people of all ages. Being overweight can be associated with osteoarthritis. Therefore, weight loss and regular physical activity can relieve symptoms.[/vc_column_text][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]


Important in both childhood development of strong bones and in adulthood maintenance of the bones. A number of nutrients are required but is is a lack of vitamin D in particular that is associated with rickets in children. Diet and nutrient status are important factors in formation of healthy bones, particularly calcium, vitamin.[/vc_column_text][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_column_text]

Calcium + Vitamin D

Calcium intake is particularly important during childhood, adolescence and adulthood for bones development. Vitamin D assists in the absorption of calcium from food. Some vitamin D is acquired from the diet but for most people the major source is through synthesis in skin that is exposed to sunlight.[/vc_column_text][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][/vc_column][/vc_row][vc_row][vc_column][vc_single_image image=”4189″ img_size=”800×1000″ alignment=”center”][vc_empty_space height=”10vh”][/vc_column][/vc_row]